The Twilight Zone: OTC Regulatory Regimes and Market Quality

More than 8,000 domestic equity securities were publicly traded in the U.S. over-the-counter (OTC) market in 2010.  Yet, research studying this market is limited.  On the one hand, the OTC market attracts stocks of firms that tend to be small and growing.  On the other hand, it generally offers investors less protection than the traditional exchanges do, and fraudulent and abusive practices in this market can cause significant economic harm to investors.  Thus, the OTC market illustrates the trade-off that securities regulators face between ensuring investor protection and creating a viable market for small growth firms.  This trade-off has come … Read more

No Country Left Behind: History Complicates Efforts to Harmonize Global Regulation

The European Union (EU) enacted a series of regulations in the early 2000s to improve the financial markets of member states. While the new regulations were formally the same across the EU, member countries must individually implement, supervise, and enforce them. Our paper, recently published in the Review of Financial Studies and available here, uses this situation to estimate the causal effect of securities regulation on market liquidity and also to examine how prior conditions, implementation, and enforcement affect the results of new regulation.

In our study, we examined the liquidity effects of two EU directives on securities regulation. … Read more