On September 30, 2014, the Delaware Supreme Court reversed a jury verdict finding that ev3, Inc. breached its contractual obligation to the shareholders of Appriva Medical, Inc., a company purchased by ev3. In ev3, Inc. v Lesh, No. 515m 2013, the Delaware Supreme Court ruled that an integration clause in a definitive merger agreement that provided for survival of a previously signed letter of intent did not transform the non-binding provisions of the LOI into binding provisions. The case was remanded to the Delaware Superior Court for further proceedings consistent with the Delaware Supreme Court’s opinion.
Post-Merger Milestone Payments… Read more
Hedge fund activism has increased almost hyperbolically. Some view this optimistically as a means for bridging the separation of ownership and control; others are more pessimistic, seeing mainly wealth transfers from bondholders or speculative expectations of a takeover as fueling the spike. Equivalent division exists over the impact of this increased activism, with optimists seeing real gains that do not erode over time and improvements in operating performance, and pessimists predicting shortened investment horizons, increased leverage, and reduced investment in research and development.
In a paper recently posted on SSRN, we take an analytic perspective. We begin by surveying the … Read more
The following post comes to us from Minor Myers, Assistant Professor at Brooklyn Law School, and Charles Korsmo, Assistant Professor at Case Western Reserve University School of Law. It is based on their recent paper, “The Structure of Stockholder Litigation: When Do the Merits Matter?,” which is forthcoming in the Ohio State Law Journal and is available here.
We offer a novel perspective on an old question in corporate law: Do the merits matter in stockholder litigation? In short, we find that the merits appear to matter very little in an important type of stockholder litigation—fiduciary duty class … Read more
Berkshire Hathaway Inc. has agreed to pay a civil penalty of $896,000 concerning its conversion of notes into voting securities of USG Corporation in December 2013, which was more than five years after Berkshire’s HSR Act filing to acquire an initial USG stock position and thus past the expiration date of the original HSR. In addition, Berkshire previously had made a corrective filing in July 2013 concerning the acquisition of voting securities of a different issuer and was, therefore, treated as a repeat offender by the Federal Trade Commission.
On Wednesday, August 20, the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) … Read more
A recent Delaware Supreme Court decision highlights the growing risks to companies of extensive statutory “books and records” demands that recently have become a favorite in the toolkit of plaintiffs’ lawyers and even activist shareholders conducting what are often speculative fishing expeditions under the guise of investigating alleged corporate wrongdoing. The statutory inspection right under Section 220 of the Delaware corporation law (and analogous rights in other states) permits shareholders with a holding of any size to access almost any internal information under the control of the company as long as there is a “proper purpose” for the request. Most … Read more
On July 15, 2014, the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia (DC Circuit) ruled that if the President, pursuant to his powers under the Exon-Florio Amendment to the Defense Production Act of 1950 (DPA), deprives a foreign acquirer or investor in the United States of its constitutionally protected property interests, the foreign acquirer or investor must be accorded certain due process protections. The case at issue, Ralls Corp. v. CFIUS et al, is the first-ever challenge to the review process conducted by the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS), an inter-agency committee within … Read more
Alongside the more typical summer fare, such as coverage of the best beach reading and the latest action movie blockbuster, this summer the media have been abuzz with seemingly daily reports on the latest so-called “inversion” transactions shifting a U.S.-based multinational corporation’s tax residence offshore. Recently announced transactions include the Medtronic acquisition of Irish-listed Covidien (which itself had previously inverted); Mylan’s acquisition of the Abbott Laboratories non-U.S. specialty and branded generics businesses for $5.3 billion in stock; and AbbVie’s $54 billion acquisition of Shire, a London-listed, Jersey incorporated, Irish tax resident corporation. Other transactions remain in the planning stages (Walgreens-Boots), … Read more
From 2004 through 2010, the number of appraisal petitions filed in Delaware rose and fell roughly in parallel with the overall level of merger activity, with appraisal rights being asserted in about 5% of the transactions for which they were available. In 2011, however, the rate of petitions more than doubled (to 10%) and it has continued to increase. In 2013, 28 appraisal petitions were filed in Delaware, representing about 17% of appraisal eligible transactions. In 2014, so far, more than 20 appraisal claims already have been filed in Delaware. The amounts at stake in appraisal actions have increased as … Read more
Citing a trend in recent years of private equity firms acquiring insurers, particularly life insurers writing fixed and indexed annuity contracts, the New York State Department of Financial Services on May 14, 2014 released for public comment proposed amendments to its regulations governing the approval process for the direct or indirect acquisition of control of insurance companies domiciled in New York. The proposed amendments seek to reduce “the possibility that any person seeking to acquire control of a New York domestic insurer has interests that conflict with the interests of policyholders, shareholders or the public” and “minimiz[e] the potential … Read more
In a recent decision, Chen v. Howard-Anderson, the Delaware Chancery Court once again questioned the reasonableness of how a board conducted the sale of a company when it permitted stockholder claims to go to trial. The decision provides yet another reminder—if one is needed—that boards and their advisors need to ensure that a sale process is conducted in a manner that promotes a level playing field for all bidders and that disclosure to stockholders provides a fair and balanced description of the process.
Former stockholders of Occam Networks Inc. are challenging the February 2011 merger of Occam and … Read more
Two recent developments have changed the playing field of corporate governance: (1) the Delaware Chancery Court’s ruling this month on the use of a two-tier poison pill in the Sotheby’s case (and Sotheby’s quick and conciliatory settlement two days later, which conceded three seats on Sotheby’s expanded board to Third Point LLC, a particularly aggressive hedge fund), and (2) the joint $50 billion bid of Pershing Square Capital Management and Valeant Pharmaceuticals International Inc. for Allergan Inc. In their wake, every pundit has announced that this is the heyday of hedge fund activism. Fund managers now hold the whip hand, … Read more
The best part of a Delaware Chancery Court opinion is the first 30 or so pages. In most important cases, the opinion typically starts by telling a story – a detailed account of the people who figure in the dispute, what they did, their motives and personalities, and how this character-driven narrative resulted in the dispute the court must resolve. Often there is drama: exposition, crisis and denouement. The recent decision over the validity of a poison pill invoked to disadvantage Third Point’s effort to dislodge Sotheby’s management is a great example. The interest and importance of the case is … Read more
The following post comes to us from Charles Korsmo, Assistant Professor at Case Western Reserve University School of Law, and Minor Myers, Assistant Professor at Brooklyn Law School. It is based on their recent paper entitled “Appraisal Arbitrage and the Future of Public Company M&A” and is available here.
Stockholder appraisal has been thrust into the spotlight by two high-profile and very large appraisal actions in Delaware involving the Dell and Dole going-private transactions. As we show in our forthcoming article, “Appraisal Arbitrage and the Future of Public Company M&A,” these two cases are part of a larger trend … Read more
The Pershing Square-Valeant hostile bid for Allergan has captured the imagination. Other companies are wondering whether they too will wake up one morning to find a raider-activist tag-team wielding a stealth block of their stock. Serial acquirers are asking whether they should be looking to take advantage of this new maneuver. Speculation and rumor abound of other raider-activist pairings and other targets.
Questions of legality are also being raised. Pershing Square and Valeant are loudly proclaiming that they have very cleverly (and profitably) navigated their way through a series of loopholes to create a new template for hostile acquisitions, one … Read more
In Great Hill Equity Partners IV, LP v. SIG Growth Equity Fund I, LLLP, Chancellor Strine of the Delaware Chancery Court recently reaffirmed that the target company in a Delaware merger is the sole holder of the attorney-client privilege to communications with its counsel and the privilege cannot be claimed by the seller (the target’s shareholders). The Great Hill case involved a buyer who filed suit for fraudulent inducement by the seller following the consummation of the buyer’s merger with a company owned by the seller because the buyer found troubling communications between the seller and counsel for the … Read more
In October 2009, Dimensional Associates, LLC (“Dimensional”), the controlling stockholder of The Orchard Enterprises, Inc. (“Orchard”), which held 42% of Orchard’s outstanding common stock and 99% of its outstanding convertible preferred stock that collectively gave it approximately 53% of Orchard’s outstanding voting power, formally proposed a squeeze-out merger at a price of $1.68 per share, representing a 25% premium to the then-current stock price. Orchard’s board responded by forming a special committee with a mandate that included the right to negotiate or reject a transaction with Dimensional and to solicit interest from other third parties. While four of the five … Read more
The CLS Blue Sky Blog presents Part II of the third installment of our series, “The Marketplace of Ideas.” Earlier installments on different topics are available here and here. The intent is to present different perspectives on the same subject by two or more authors.
Today, the subject is how the SEC should respond to Dodd Frank’s invitation to rethink the disclosure of beneficial ownership under Section 13(d). We have asked a number of experts for their views.
In Part I of this installment, available here, we heard from Professors Ronald J. Gilson of Columbia Law School and … Read more
The following comes to us from Paul C. Hilal, a Partner at Pershing Square Capital Management, a New York City-based hedge fund founded in 2004.
Is shareholder activism good for the world?
A simple question, and yet it’s the subject of intense debate. Proponents say activists play a key role in the markets, shaking up entrenched interests and unlocking long-term value by acting as change agents. Critics claim activism pumps up short term stock prices for the benefit of the activists at the expense of long term interests of companies and their shareholders.
Who’s right and what does that suggest … Read more
Our Blog’s most recent Marketplace for Ideas series has considered whether the SEC should tighten its rules under the Williams Act, which now require that investors must disclose purchases of a 5% or greater stake in public companies within ten days of crossing the 5% level. This debate began in March 2011, when Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen and Katz first petitioned the SEC to reduce the disclosure window from ten days to one, and SEC Staff immediately signaled that they were indeed inclined to tighten the disclosure period. In response, Lucian Bebchuk and I filed a comment letter urging the SEC … Read more
On March 14, 2014, the Delaware Supreme Court upheld the Court of Chancery’s 2013 decision in In re MFW Shareholders Litigation , holding that in going-private mergers where there is a controlling stockholder, the use of both a truly independent special committee and a majority of the minority stockholder vote, allows for judicial review under the deferential business judgment standard.
In mid-2011, Ronald Perelman’s wholly-owned holding company, MacAndrews & Forbes, a 43% stockholder of M&F Worldwide (MFW), made a proposal to take MFW private by acquiring the minority shares at $24 per share. In its initial proposal, MacAndrews & … Read more