Why Cybersecurity Is a Growing Concern in M&A

The Fortune 500 CEO survey in 2021 found that two-thirds of interviewed CEOs consider cybersecurity risk their greatest concern, far greater than the risks presented by political instability or climate change.[1] They are right to be concerned, particularly in the context of mergers and acquisitions (M&A), where the process of migrating and integrating data between merging firms can make them particularly vulnerable to sophisticated cyber terrorists. (IBM, 2019). IT breaches during that process could significantly reduce the gains expected from a deal.

Furthermore, threats to successful deal completion may arise from past cybersecurity weaknesses, as highlighted in two recent … Read more

Listing Gaps, Merger Waves, and the Privatization of U.S. Equity Finance

The number of U.S. listed companies declined by almost half between 1996 and 2012, from 8,090 to 4,102, and had risen only slightly, to 4,336, by year-end 2017. However, the real market valuation of these listed companies tripled over the same period, from $10.2 trillion in 1996 to $32.1 trillion in 2017[1], implying that the average market valuation of a U.S. listed firm has increased six-fold over the past two decades. In other words, the U.S. public stock market has become populated exclusively by behemoths. Over the same period, the U.S. has experienced historically high levels of merger … Read more