The positive correlation between oil prices and equity markets over the past few years has been discussed extensively in the media as well as by prominent economists, such as Bernanke and Obstfeld, and has brought into question the generally accepted view that lower oil prices are good for the U.S. and the global economy. However, in a recent study, we illustrate that there has been no stable relationship between real oil prices and equity returns over the last 71 years. Nevertheless, we argue that, as in previous episodes of falling oil prices, lower oil prices improve profit opportunities … Read more
When should changes in markets for financial securities drive changes in law? In my forthcoming essay, available here, I argue that a normative framework for making that examination would increase transparency and legitimacy. It would also help counter the tendency of politics to distort legal responses to market changes. During economic prosperity, for example, the political push for deregulation can leave financial markets under-protected. But when the bubble of prosperity inevitably bursts, the political push for regulation can lead to over-protective laws.
The essay argues that the extent to which financial market changes should drive legal changes should depend on … Read more
Today the bulk of American workers’ retirement savings, worth trillions of dollars, is in self-directed individual retirement accounts (IRAs) and defined contribution pension plans. Understandably, many workers with self-directed accounts turn to financial advisers for help in matching the vast and complicated array of investment options in today’s financial markets to the worker’s particular circumstances. However, the manner by which financial advisers are compensated has long raised concerns about conflicts of interest. Some advisers are compensated by the providers of the financial products that the adviser sells, giving the adviser a financial incentive to recommend the products that provide the … Read more
On July 29, 2016, the board of directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) released a proposal regarding third-party lending guidance (“Proposed Guidance”) as part of a package of materials designed to “improve the transparency and clarity of the FDIC’s supervisory policies and practices.” The Proposed Guidance elaborates on previously issued agency guidance on managing third-party risks and, if finalized, could apply to all FDIC-supervised institutions that engage in third-party lending programs.
The Proposed Guidance affirms that an institution’s board of directors and senior management are responsible for managing, identifying and controlling the risks associated with lending activities … Read more
After every crisis, academics, policymakers and other observers reflect on what went wrong and what could have been done differently. This in turn leads to some reforms to laws and regulations. In the wake of widespread, multi-country corporate governance failures in the 1990s and 2000s (Enron, Tyco and Xerox in the U.S., for example, Maxwell, BCCI and Polly Peck in the UK, Parmalat in Italy and Ahold in the Netherlands), the call was for company law reforms and better corporate governance practices. The recent global financial crisis has led to many new regulations, and the revamping of existing ones, covering … Read more
Contractarians, who believe that fiduciary relationships are a species of contract, and anti-contractarians, who believe those relationships are sui generis, have long debated what fiduciary duties are and how they should be applied. Contractarians frame the fiduciary duty as one of loyalty that prohibits a fiduciary from engaging in conflicts of interest without the beneficiary’s permission. They see fiduciary duties as gap fillers that help courts determine the parties’ responsibilities if a situation arises that was not contemplated by the parties’ original agreement. Anti-contractarians, on the other hand, view fiduciary duties as a means to protect vulnerable parties from their … Read more
A host of studies have examined the link between accounting and the 2007-2008 global financial crisis, most of them focusing on whether fair value accounting or accounting discretion at financial institutions helped skew valuations on bank balance sheets. In our recent article, “The Effect of Accounting Conservatism on Corporate Investment during the Global Financial Crisis,” available here, we examine how financial reporting at non-financial firms affected the economy during the crisis. Prior studies provide evidence that the financial crisis was a relatively exogenous shock to the supply of external finance (at least with respect to any individual firm) that significantly … Read more
“Culture, more than rule books, determines how an organization behaves.” – Warren Buffet
In recent years, there have been ongoing occurrences of serious professional misbehavior, ethical lapses and compliance failures at financial institutions. It was the crisis that exposed systematic mentality errors in finance.
The hope was that post-crisis regulatory reforms would tackle the typical mindset of short-term oriented self-enrichment in finance, considered as one of the origins of the financial crisis. Now, almost ten years after the crash in 2007, the lack of fundamental change raises the question whether there is an endemic issue within the financial … Read more
2015 and 2016 mark the 30th anniversaries of the Delaware Supreme Court’s landmark decisions in Unocal Corp. v. Mesa Petroleum Co. and Revlon, Inc. v. Macandrews & Forbes Holdings, Inc. Those cases and their progeny called for enhanced scrutiny standards to be applied to negotiated change of control transactions as well as to deal protection devices. During the past three decades, however, it has not been smooth sailing in the courts’ application of these standards. In fact, I have previously argued that the Delaware courts have shifted away from both the Unocal and Revlon enhanced scrutiny standards.… Read more
In 2010, after considering 400 possible targets, Indiana-based funeral casket manufacturer Hillenbrand Inc. announced a plan to acquire K-Tron International Inc., a Pitman, New Jersey firm which makes industrial coal crushers and feeding equipment (including a machine to shoot raisins into breakfast cereal). Despite the considerable difference in product lines, K-Tron provided Hillenbrand CEO Kenneth Camp with a unique benefit. Camp was raised in Pitman and his mother Edith still lived nearby in his childhood home. Although Camp said the location in Pitman had no influence on his decision to buy the company, he acknowledged: “When I heard it … Read more
Merger activity seems to rise in step with the market. Academic papers suggest this may be due to bidders exploiting overvalued shares, a pro-cyclicality of merger economies of scale or available capital for deals, or simply the behavioral pressures of a “me too” mindset among CEOs. But this positive association is not altogether intuitive, as practitioners and academics alike ask “why do we not see merger waves during bear markets in which acquirers are bargain-hunting for undervalued firms.”
In our working paper “Merger Activity, Stock Prices, and Measuring Gains from M&A” we offer a fresh take on the positive … Read more
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is now accepting Form C filings from private companies seeking to sell securities through registered crowdfunding portals. We have been following the nascent crowdfunding space closely and will continue to monitor the adoption of crowdfunding as a new method of financing private companies.
In this alert, we will analyze offerings conducted through crowdfunding portals, offer tips for those thinking of entering the space and provide a summary of the SEC’s final rules and forms for equity crowdfunding (“Regulation Crowdfunding”).
Analysis of the First 50 Offerings
In general. As of June 30, 2016, 50 companies … Read more
A new type of warfare is upon us. In this new mode of war, finance is the most powerful weapon, bullets are not fired, financial institutions are the targets, and almost everyone is at risk. Instead of smart bombs, improvised explosives, and unmanned drones –– economic sanctions, financial restrictions, and cyber programs are the weapons of choice. This is the new reality of modern financial warfare.
The armaments of modern financial warfare are as vast, diverse, and important as the myriad of ways to raise and move money. Broadly, the financial weapons of war can be divided into analog weapons … Read more
In the wake of its release on May 17, 2016 of updated Compliance and Disclosure Interpretations (“CDIs”) relating to the disclosure of non-GAAP financial measures, the SEC’s Division of Corporation Finance has indicated in no uncertain terms that now is the time for companies to review their non-GAAP measures and make any revisions called for by the new guidance.
With the new and revised CDIs, the SEC has delivered the latest in a series of increasingly strong warnings – previously made in remarks by the SEC Chair and senior Staff accountants – about the perceived misuse of non-GAAP measures. Commenting … Read more
As we have previously observed, private fund advisers face a difficult challenge when SEC guidance (in the form of a speech or a public enforcement order) indicates that certain long-standing practices may be contrary to the securities laws. What does an adviser do when its past practices appear, in hindsight, to have fallen short?
While there are a number of potential “fixes”, including rebating fees, amending the fund documents, amending the Form ADV, and changing prospective practices, doing nothing is a particularly bad strategy. These situations are potential whistleblower events, even if the adviser is not yet aware of any … Read more
Reinsurance can be understood as simply insurer’s insurance. Under an insurance contract, a policyholder is protected from loss by transferring risk to an insurer; analogously, under a reinsurance contract, an insurer (the cedent or ceding company) is protected from exposure by transferring risk to a reinsurer. Insurers have an increasing demand for more financial capacity when underwriting catastrophic risks. The Cologne Reinsurance Company was the first professional reinsurance company, founded in 1842 following a catastrophic fire in Hamburg the same year. For over a century, reinsurance has been the preferred vehicle to shed primary insurers’ catastrophe risk exposure. For example, … Read more
On June 16, 2016, the US Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) issued a proposed rule (available here), which, if adopted, would result in a revamp of its disclosure requirements for mining company issuers. The proposed rule is intended to harmonize the SEC’s mining property disclosure requirements with current industry and global regulatory practices and standards. The SEC is seeking comments on all aspects of the proposal. Initial comments are due 60 days after the proposed rule is published in the Federal Register.
The key changes proposed for mining companies are:
- requiring the disclosure of mineral resources (currently prohibited under
Attackers last February reportedly stole $81 million from the Bangladesh Central Bank by obtaining and exploiting the bank’s credentials for the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) network. The attack – one of the biggest bank robberies in history – exploited weaknesses in cyber, fraud, and possibly insider threat controls, illustrating the need for banks to combine financial crime risk areas that were previously either siloed, or at best tenuously connected.
Specifically, the attackers exploited cyber weaknesses by designing custom malware tailored to bypass controls and network logging systems used by the Bangladesh Central Bank. The attackers also … Read more
A recent enforcement action reflects the CFTC’s expanded jurisdiction and provides further clarity on what constitutes “actual delivery” in cryptocurrency trading.
On June 2, 2016, the US Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) issued an order (the Bitfinex Order) filing, and simultaneously settling, charges against Hong Kong-based BFXNA, Inc., d/b/a Bitfinex (Bitfinex), in connection with Bitfinex’s operation of an online cryptocurrency trading platform (the Platform). Specifically, the Bitfinex Order finds that Bitfinex facilitated the execution of illegal, off-exchange commodity transactions in violation of the Commodity Exchange Act (the CEA) by (i) permitting retail and non-retail users to engage in financed … Read more
Much has been written and spoken in the immediate aftermath of the UK’s EU referendum about what the UK must do to leave the EU. We look at the key questions in this area, such as whether the UK has yet decided to withdraw, what it must do to withdraw, whether it can change its mind, and the position of Scotland.
What is the mechanism for leaving the EU?
The mechanism for the UK’s leaving the EU is set out in article 50 of the Treaty on European Union (see Box 1, overleaf). For withdrawal, article 50 requires:
- A decision