As has been widely reported, FDIC Vice Chairman Thomas Hoenig put forward in remarks to the Institute of International Bankers on Monday, March 13, a “Market-Based Proposal for Regulatory Relief and Accountability” (the “Hoenig Proposal” or the “Proposal”). If adopted, the Hoenig Proposal would substantially change the regulation of large and complex banking organizations doing business in the United States.
The Hoenig Proposal advances ideas that the Vice Chairman has long advocated concerning a new framework for bank regulation. In 2015 and 2016, Mr. Hoenig proposed various types of regulatory relief for what he described as traditional commercial banks … Read more
Many financial institutions1 have implemented the three Lines of Defense (LoD) model to help define their risk management frameworks and bolster supervisors’ (e.g., desk heads and senior traders) abilities to monitor risk.2 However, as frameworks for managing financial risks (e.g., credit, market, and liquidity) have become more developed, regulators are increasingly focusing on oversight of non-financial risks (e.g., operational and conduct).3
Supervisors are often not only expected to design, manage, and execute a financial institution’s first LoD controls framework, but to do so while meeting (or exceeding) revenue expectations. In order for supervisors to meet the expectations of … Read more
Developments in private and public markets are changing the role equity plays in the United States, i.e., what “stock” means as a matter not only of investment and corporate governance, but also of political economy. For several generations, a broad middle class invested directly in bureaucratically run corporations, disciplined by securities and other laws. The governance of firms and therefore much of the economy was answerable to this broad middle class. Perhaps most important, citizens understood such arrangements as “the free enterprise system” or even “the American way.” We call this a “republican” imagination of equity markets.
There has recently … Read more
The election of Donald Trump in November has substantially increased the likelihood of major tax reform in the near future. While it is uncertain what shape such reform will take, there has been renewed interest in the so-called “Blueprint” for tax reform released by House Republicans on June 24, 2016. The Blueprint’s stated aims are to promote economic growth for American business, incentivize companies to remain in the United States and greatly reduce the complexity of the current tax system. To promote these objectives, the Blueprint advocates the replacement of the current corporate income tax with what is referred … Read more
A central topic in financial economics is how the allocation of cash flow and control rights among providers of corporate finance should evolve with firm performance. Theoretically, allowing for a transfer of control to creditors when a firm is in default can alleviate agency problems resulting from the separation of ownership and control, as well as conflicts of interest between debt and equity holders (Jensen and Meckling, 1976). Empirical evidence confirms that governance by creditors has profound effects on not only bankrupt firms (Gilson, 1990), but also a broad spectrum of firms that are merely in technical default.… Read more
In our recent paper, we provide strong empirical evidence that banks play an active role in shaping borrowers’ tax planning. Our evidence is drawn from a comprehensive analysis of the impact of debt covenant violations on corporate tax avoidance.
Covenants must be maintained while the debt is outstanding and are tripwires for trouble. A violation of a covenant can put the borrowing firm into technical default and lead to the transfer of control rights to creditors, who then step in and exert strong influence over managerial decisions.
Using a large sample of covenant violations by U.S. public firms between 1997 … Read more
Recent advances in financial technology (FinTech) have dramatically transformed the financial landscape with respect to the way we access, invest, and transfer financial capital. In our recent article, we explore a promising avenue for the use of natural-language processing in an effective yet non-invasive method by which to monitor the health and integrity of financial institutions and corporations in general.
Specifically, the continuous flow and abundance of corporate emails makes them a far more prevalent and timely indicator of escalating risk or malaise than the numbers in quarterly financial statements. However, difficulties lie in systematically and efficiently drawing inferences from … Read more
On January 26 the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) released its first set of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the Fundamental Review of the Trading Book (FRTB). The BCBS published the FRTB in January 2016 with the intent to harmonize (i.e., reduce variability) the treatment of market risk across national jurisdictions. It will generally result in higher global capital requirements.
The BCBS calls for each jurisdiction to finalize implementation of the FRTB before January 2019 and for compliance to begin by December 2019. We do not expect US regulators to adopt the standard until 2018 at the earliest … Read more
President Donald J. Trump’s “America’s Infrastructure First” plan is one of the Trump Administration’s priorities during his first 100 days in office. Throughout the campaign, President Trump heralded his plan to build and restore highways, tunnels, airports, bridges, and water systems across America and promised a $1 trillion investment in the infrastructure sector over a 10-year period. Leaders from both parties acknowledge the nation’s deteriorating infrastructure, and there have been expressions of support from both sides of the aisle for some sort of development and construction program. Aside from the overall proposed sticker price of $1 trillion, there are scant … Read more
Operating risk is a major concern for firm management and stakeholders. Stark examples of losses due to corporate operations include BP’s $17.2 billion loss in June 2010 following the Deepwater Horizon incident (Wong and Yousuf, 2010) and Freeport-McMoRan’s $13.9 billion loss in 2008 due to plunging metal prices and difficulty with the acquisition of a rival company (James, 2009). The consequences of these and other operating losses are significant, and spill over to connected firms (Wu, 2016). Managers may be willing to make risky operating decisions if they are unaware of the risk or measure it poorly, or if their … Read more
On January 30, 2017, the Federal Reserve published a final rule, initially proposed on September 26, 2016, that will modify the CCAR capital plan and stress testing rules applicable to bank holding companies (“BHCs”) with $50 billion or more in total consolidated assets and U.S. intermediate holding companies (“IHCs”) of foreign banking organizations (collectively, “CCAR firms”). Most notably, beginning with the 2017 CCAR and DFAST cycle, the final rule will exclude the capital plans of “large and noncomplex” CCAR firms (those that are not global systemically important banks (“G-SIBs”), … Read more
In a bank examination, regulators evaluate a financial institution’s compliance with applicable laws and regulations. The process is generally non-public, and the bank examination privilege helps keep it confidential. But questions have recently arisen about how the privilege is meant to work, and the answers to them may significantly affect financial institutions and their dealings with federal and state regulators.
In our new legal treatise, The Bank Examination Privilege, we offer a comprehensive overview of the bank examination privilege and its essential role in bank supervision. As we point out, there are two key reasons why confidentiality is vital. First, … Read more
The Comptroller of the Currency (the “OCC”) has been working for over a year to develop a comprehensive framework to improve the OCC’s ability to identify and understand trends and innovations in the financial services industry, as well as evolving customer needs.[i] The OCC is taking a comprehensive approach to financial innovation, including innovative products and services. As part of this initiative, the OCC formed a team including policy experts, examiners, lawyers and other’s (the “Team”) to gain a better understanding of emerging technology and new approaches in financial services and to design the OCC’s … Read more
The pressure to meet earnings expectations has grown intense for U.S. companies, and may be damaging the health and safety of workers. Missing analyst estimates, even by a small amount, can lead to significant negative reactions from investors. For example, eBay’s share price plunged 22 percent when it missed its fourth-quarter 2004 consensus estimate by just one penny. Facing such market pressures, managers may look for ways to improve their firm’s bottom line. They can create incentives for employees to become more productive, reduce discretionary expenditures, or seek ways to boost profits in the short term. These actions often come … Read more
If 2008 through 2010 were years of tumult and recession in U.S. financing markets, and 2011 through 2015 years of recovery and growth, marked by ever-lower yields and record-setting financing activity even in the face of new compliance regimes, 2016 felt like a tipping point. After hitting record lows in the first half of the year, interest rates at last experienced a sustained rise, and the U.S. election results opened the door to major regulatory and legislative changes, including the potential roll-back of portions of Dodd-Frank and the potential roll-out of consensus-fueled fiscal stimulus.
During the course of a year … Read more
The tax affairs of large corporations have recently come under intense scrutiny. One symptom of this scrutiny has been increasing disclosure requirements, both to the public and to taxing authorities. One form of increased disclosure includes putting more information about the firm’s tax affairs in the hands of the public. For instance, public release of tax data in the form of public country-by-country reporting is a possibility in the U.S. and all European Union member states by 2018. In 2013, the Australian legislature began debating making public certain tax-return data that were previously available only to the taxing authority. Amid … Read more
Over the last 30 years, institutional investors have dramatically increased their stakes in U.S. companies. In the 1980s, they held approximately 20 percent to 30 percent of the average firm in the U.S. By 2010, they held over 65 percent. This increase in institutional holdings coincides with the growing complexity of markets and importance of corporate governance. Prior research has focused on the different effects on firms of the informed “smart money” of the institutional investor in contrast to the less sophisticated individual “retail” investor. Yet, as SEC Commissioner Luis Aguilar said in a recent speech, “Institutional investors are not … Read more
In our new article, available here, we examine what we term “regulatory entrepreneurship”: companies pursuing a line of business in which changing the law is a significant part of the business plan. Regulatory entrepreneurship is not a new phenomenon, but it has become increasingly salient in recent years, as a host of high-profile companies – from startups such as Airbnb, DraftKings, and Uber to public companies such as Tesla and Alphabet (formerly Google) – have adopted this strategy. These companies, and other regulatory entrepreneurs, have spent enormous amounts of resources pursuing lines of business that reside in legal gray … Read more
In common law countries such as the U.S., corporate governance aims primarily to protect shareholders from managers’ self-dealing. Post-Enron reforms such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and various Securities and Exchange Commission rules are examples of this shareholder-oriented approach. However, to the extent that the interests of shareholders and debtholders are not entirely aligned, governance reforms that beneﬁt shareholders may harm debtholders. Similarly, some public polices such as state anti-takeover laws (ATLs) may entrench management and harm shareholders but benefit debtholders by reducing both the variance of cash flow from operations and the firm’s risk of default.
In our … Read more
In December 2015, Ukraine defaulted on a $3 billion loan made two years previously by the Russian government. Governments lend to one another all the time, but this loan was extraordinary, and so were the events that followed in its wake.
Like most government-to-government loans, this one had political motivations. For Russia, these included the desire to reward President Victor Yanukovych for backing out of an Association Agreement that would have deepened Ukraine’s ties to the European Union. The structure, however, was unusual for a government-to-government loan. Whereas governments typically lend funds directly, the Russian loan took the form of … Read more